Setting up a car is complex but in general it will only be decissive at oval courses. At road courses normally the driver can drive around the setup (or the car's) shortcomings.
Understanding vehicle dynamics helps a good deal, but if you want to learn to setup a car usually the best is to limit yourself at the beginning to roll bars front and rear, camber and tire pressure.
For any non-aero car, put springs and dampers in the middle of the range and if possible try to respect the cars weight distribution in relative stiffness (You can see that in the garage). F.e. if a car has 55% weight front, a 55 N/mm spring front and a 45 N/mm rear is the adequate for starters (Exact numbers depend on the car's adjustment range, but try tohave them respect that % relative to each other).
Then tune the handling with roll bars front and rear till you are satisfied.
Stiffer at the front = More understeer but more traction. Softer causes the opposite effect.
Stiffer at the rear = More oversteer and less traction. Softer causes the opposite effect.
You can experiment first simply putting one at maximum stiffness and doing some laps, then at minimum, then try the combined effect.
Once you are satisfied with the general behaviour, adjust camber and pressures so that you get correct, uniform temperatures (Bit hotter on the inside of the tire).
When you master this, you can progress to slow damping, then to fast damping and finally to other fine adjustments like caster, toe in, etc. but trust me, 95% of the setup is what I just told you.